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"Important NOTE!!!" Information Provided On This Website Is Intended For... "GENERAL INFORMATION
ONLY!!!" And Must Be Only Be Used Only As A "GUIDE!!!" It Must Not Be Used For Decision Making, Or
Be Used For Any Building Purposes Or Legal Proceedings. Refer To Our Policies On This Website.

Structural Design Goes To The Beginning Of Human History.

As civilization progressed, so did the complexities of structures and its design was of critical importance.

Initially it was mostly guesswork, but slowly calculations on various load bearing members were done,
before construction began.

There are marvelous examples of structural design in human history.

The Egyptians created massive pyramids, whose insides had chambers and were connected by a
labyrinth of passages.

The entire edifice had complex structural design elements. It has stood for thousands of years.

The Romans too were master builders and even today, many examples of their ingenuity in structural
design exist.

Structural engineering designs depend on the knowledge of various materials used for construction and
the loads acting on them.

The Design Of A Structure... Depends Mainly On The Following:

* Applied Mechanics
* Materials Science
* Applied Mathematics
* Empirical and Theoretical Design Codes
* Structural Analysis
* Corrosion

By using detailed empirical and theoretical knowledge of design... the strength of materials used, their
behavior under loads, the different loads & the direction in which they act, their resistance to corrosion
etc, a building can be designed and constructed as per what is required.

Safety Considerations Are Of Paramount Importance In Structural Design And A Factor Of Safety Is Always Incorporated Into The Design.

This is to ensure that load bearing structures can withstand much more than the maximum envisaged load.

DIFFERENT ELEMENTS USED IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN:

A structure consists of a small number of different types of elements. Some of the common materials used
for construction are:

Iron, Steel, Concrete, Aluminum, Composites, Alloys, Masonry, Timber etc.

The Different Elements Used In Construction Consist Of The Following:

* Columns
* Beams
* Truss
* Plates
* Shells
* Arches
* Catenaries

Columns:

Columns are structural elements which carry axial force or sometimes both axial and bending forces.

Therefore the design of the column must be able to withstand not only the axial forces;

it should also be able to handle the bending force acting on it.

The buckling capacity of an element is very important, as this is what gives it the ability to withstand
buckling.

This depends on the type of material used, geometry, effective length and the restraint conditions at the top and bottom of the column.

The column capacity to support an axial load is subject to the degree of bending and vice versa.

Beams:

A beam is an element in which one dimension is much greater than the other two.

Applied loads normally act perpendicular to the axis.

Beams and columns are called line elements in structural modeling. Beams are of different types,
depending on its supports.

The types of beams are:

Cantilever; it is supported only at one end with a fixed connection.

Simply supported; vertically at both ends.

Continuous; supported by three or more supports.

Combination; a mix of the above.

It is supported at one end and the middle but is unsupported at the other end.

Truss:

A truss is a structure which comprises of two elements; compression and tension members.

Most trusses make use of a gusset plate for connecting intersecting structural elements. Gusset plates
are relatively flexible and this keeps the bending moment at the connections to the minimum.

Due to this relative flexibility, the trusses are subjected to mostly tension or compression.

Trusses usually span large distances since it is more economical than using a solid beam.

Plates:

A plate is designed to withstand bending in two directions.

An example of a plate is a concrete flat slab.

The forces acting on a plate are complex and to design a plate, a codified empirical method or computer analysis is used.

Shells:

Shells achieve their strength due to their shape. They carry compressive forces in two directions.

A dome, in a structure, is an example of a shell.

The design of a dome is done by using a hanging chain model. In one direction it will act as a catenary in
pure tension and if inverted it has only compressive forces acting on it.

Arches:

Arches carry the forces of compression only in one direction and due to this arches can be built out of masonry.

The design of an arch is such that the thrust line of the force remains within the cross section of the arch.

Catenaries:

They derive their strength due to their form.

They carry the transverse forces of pure tension by deflection.

They are usually made of cables or fabric structures. Unlike a cable, a fabric structure acts like a catenary
in two directions.

Structural Designs Are A Vast And Complex Field Of Engineering.

With the advent of computers, calculating the various loads factors has become much simpler.

A sound design structure is at the heart of every construction.



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"Important NOTE!!!" Information Provided On This Website Is Intended For... "GENERAL INFORMATION
ONLY!!!" And Must Be Only Be Used Only As A "GUIDE!!!" It Must Not Be Used For Decision Making, Or
Be Used For Any Building Purposes Or Legal Proceedings. Refer To Our Policies On This Website.

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